What do colleges expect?
The good news about college acceptance? Even “the experts” don’t possess the “silver bullet.”
The bad news? No one does.
College acceptance rates and their corresponding criteria vary from year to year based on a range of metrics including, but not limited to:
- The pool of applicants and its characteristics
- A college’s diversity and financial quotas
- The allowable occupancy of specialized programs such as computer science, engineering and nursing
Nonetheless, there are some readily apparent trends that university data reveals.
According to the New York Times, “What Colleges Want In an Applicant (Everything),” GPA or grade point average and ACT/SAT scores still function as the gatekeepers of most reputable four year universities.
“U.S. News Data: Admissions Trends at Top Public Colleges” has recently confirmed that student SAT scores are rising, therefore raising the bar for the average student. In layman’s terms, it’s becoming increasingly difficult to compete.
College Acceptance Criteria
Other nuanced factors bear influence on a college applicant’s acceptance:
- Ability to pay whether through loans, scholarships or family money
- Family alumni connections
- Socioeconomic status
- High school class rank
- A student’s high school state ranking
- Student educational opportunities and resources
The Chronicle of Higher Education’s “What You Need to Know About Race-Conscious Admissions in 2017” asserts that the most contentious criteria are likely policies of “Race Consciousness,” which proponents argue increases diversity and opportunity for underrepresented youth by ”privileging black, Hispanic, Native American, and other disadvantaged groups.” Opponents claim that such policies discriminate against more qualified white and Asian applicants based on GPA and standardized test scores.
Whether we defend or criticize these policies, “affirmative action” policies exist in higher education, the expectation being that if a student has more, he or she can achieve more. Therefore, these policies have not been deemed unconstitutional as educational opportunities remain inequitable and disproportionately allotted to more affluent students.
Regardless of socioeconomic status or ethnicity, every student, with the support of his or her educational “village” of parents, teachers, counselors, mentors and tutors, must work to “make the grade.”
General “Rules of Thumb”
Affluent Students are expected to exceed expectations in school, 3.8- 4.2+, and on standardized tests, 1350-1550 SAT score.
- Most colleges require parents who claim their students as a dependent to report their financial information via their previous year’s tax return
- In certain cases, these families also have alumni connections, which aid a student’s acceptance prospects
- Depending on the university, ethnicity, race and/or religious affiliation may sway admission’s departments to meet a diversity quota; albeit, not all colleges have specified “diversity quotas”
Lower Income Students are expected to meet expectations in high school, 3.0-3.7, and on entrance exams, 1100-1300 SAT score. These students will likely need to secure funding through:
- Public or government grants
- Military funding or the GI bill
- Private “need-based” scholarships
- A student’s ability to pay tends to be more significant here
Students Living at or Below the Poverty Line are expected to “survive.” These students have a larger margin of grace, particularly for state and certain private colleges. Earning a 1000 SAT and a GPA of 2.5+ is a start:
- Grants and scholarships abound, particularly if a student belongs to a marginalized group
- A student’s ability to pay is less significant
- Colleges analyze “growth” on high school report cards; if these students show progress between 9th and 11th grades, universities often wager these students will continue to show promise, grit and determination
Students Who Do Not Meet the Expectations of their peers may have other options:
- Family alumni and connections
- Athletic talent
- Severely adverse or difficult childhood experiences, trauma or disabilities
- Strong resume of sports, art, community service, internships, etc
- Safety schools with high acceptance rates
-Texas A&M, 67%
-Wofford College, 72%
-University of Denver, 73%
- Community College
Most troubling, recruiting students of color from lower-class and impoverished inner city communities is far from equitable; these students often lack fundamentals from basic necessities such as food security and a safe space to study to adequate educational opportunities such as quality teachers, tutors, and test preparation. Although racially diverse underprivileged students are expected to pass their classes and “survive” standardized testing as prospective candidates of safety schools, the vast majority will not qualify for admission at ranking universities unless they possess:
- Requisite athletic skills to play college sports
- Intellectual prowess to perform well without extra support
- Notable artistic aptitude in art, music or the performing arts
While numerous scholarships and public grants are available once students are accepted, poor minority students confront the steepest upward climb toward university admission’s success.
On the other hand, no matter who a student is categorically speaking, college acceptance remains a “cloak and dagger” enigma.
However, students and parents can prepare.
Start with a simple checklist:
- Maintain 3.5+ GPA
- Strive to perform on college entrance exams
- Rise to meet college admission standards
- Secure college funding (FASFA first)
- Analyze college freshman profiles (GPA, test score and demographic data)
- Identify safety, match and reach schools- There’s no shame in attending community college first
- Seek sound college counseling advice and often
University entrance is an uphill trudge no matter who you are, but colleges are well within reach if students and parents know where they stand, have a plan and stick to it.
Stay tuned for my next article regarding college admissions and the “nature vs nurture’s” impact on university candidates.